What common motif [theme] is present in all the prophets of Israel?
The common theme of the Old Testament prophets of Israel is the same as that of the entire Old Testament. It is the coming Messiah. The entire Old Testament is about Jesus Christ. Jesus said in the gospel of Luke,
And beginning with Moses and with all the prophets, He explained to them the things concerning Himself in all the Scriptures . . . “all things which are written about Me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled.” Then He opened their minds to understand the Scriptures, and He said to them, “Thus it is written, that the Christ should suffer and rise again from the dead the third day; and that repentance for forgiveness of sins should be proclaimed in His name to all the nations, beginning from Jerusalem. (NASB) Luke 24:27, 44-46
The prophets had six sub-themes:
1. Exposure of the sin of men and women
2. Calling men and women to be like God, that is, to be holy and to love Him
3. Warning of coming judgment
4. God is in control.
5. God is speaking – fulfilled prophecy proves it!
6. Announcing the coming of Messiah
These sub-motifs vary from book to book, but the four sub-motifs lead us to Jesus Christ, who saves men and women from their sin. Only Jesus Christ, the Messiah, can forgive our sins, but we must depend on Him to do this. An overview of the prophetic books is provided in the Appendix A of Solid Roots Study #1.
The entire old Testament and all its sections look forward to Jesus Christ.