Bible Question:

I am interested in finding Rabbinic literature about King Manasseh. 2 Chronicles 3:19 says that some things are written in the records of Hozai. Can you help?

Bible Answer:

According to the New American Standard (NAS), 2 Chronicles 33:19 reads as follows:

His prayer also and how God was entreated by him, and all his sin, his unfaithfulness, and the sites on which he built high places and erected the Asherim and the carved images, before he humbled himself, behold, they are written in the records of the Hozai. (NASB) 2 Chronicles 33:19

The New International Version (NIV) reads as follows:

His prayer and how God was moved by his entreaty, as well as all his sins and unfaithfulness, and the sites where he built high places and set up Asherah poles and idols before he humbled himself–all are written in the records of the seers. (NIV) 2 Chronicles 33:19

The NIV has replaced “records of Hozai” with “records of the seers.” The NIV did this because the word for Hozai means “seers” or prophets. In fact, the Hebrew word for “seer” occurs in verse 18. Both the NASB and NIV translate it as “seers” in verse 18, but in verse 19, the NASB translates it as “Hozai” and the NIV as “seers.” I believe the NIV translation is the best one. There is no known book called the “Book of Hozai.”

In fact, verse 18 seems to suggest that the book of the seers is our “Book of the Kings,” that is, 1 and 2 Kings.


May the Lord bless you.